MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL AND HERBAL ASPECTS OF PERIODONTITIS: A REVIEW, Sagar Bansal*, Shruti Rastogi and Meenakshi Bajpai, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, 5 km Stone, Delhi-Meerut Road, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Chemotherapeutic rinses will penetrate the outer layers of mature biofilm, while the innermost area of the biofilm where the most bacterial vitality is seen will be unaffected. In non-surgical cases, instruments may fail to reach the base of deep pockets adequately (75% of root surfaces), primarily due to the physical difficulties imposed by pocket morphology, yet it is in these deeper pockets that higher levels of periodontal pathogens exist 10. If plaque is allowed to accumulate, with no intervention or oral hygiene methods, gingivitis is established after 2-3 weeks of plaque formation which further turns into periodontitis (Figure 1). Advantages of Essential Oil Derived Mouthwash: CONCLUSION: The global need for alternative prevention, treatment options and products for oral diseases that are safe, effective and economical arises due to the rise in disease incidence (particularly in developing countries), increased resistance by pathogenic bacteria to currently used antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, opportunistic infections in immuno-compromized individuals and financial considerations in developing countries. Subramaniam K: The effect of different concentrations of Neem (, Chitme HR, Chandra R, and Kaushik S: Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of. The chart shows the evolution of the average number of times documents published in a journal in the past two, three and four years have been cited in the current year. Periodontology is a sub-classification of dentistry which deals with the study of supporting structure of teeth. Microbiol. Bacterial resistance: Bacterial resistance continues to emerge, and the widespread use of systemic antibiotics is associated with increased antibiotic resistance that represents a major health threat worldwide. Impact Factor (ISI): 1.513 (2019) An international reputation for high-quality editorial content and unparalleled color illustrations has created a loyal following for this elegantly produced journal. The two years line is equivalent to journal impact factor ™ (Thomson Reuters) metric. The need for affordable, effective, and non toxic alternatives has led to the search for compounds from natural sources such as plants, which may overcome the high incidence of oral diseases. Quirynen M, Soete M, Van Steenberghe D. Infectious risks for oral implants: a review of the literature. International Journal of  Pharma and Bio Sciences. Journal of Periodontology Author Instructions. Publications. If plaque is allowed to accumulate it will become mineralized and form calculus. Chlorhexidine has been shown to be a very effective anti plaque agent. This essential oil has been recommended for use after periodontal surgery since it reduces plaque formation without interfering with the healing process. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2003; 30:13-16. 23, Authors: Prabu GR, Gnanamani A, Sadulla S: Guaijaverin-a plant flavonoid as potential antiplaque agent against Streptococcus mutans. T-lymphocytes are implicated in periodontal bone resorption as T and B cells derived from patients with periodontal disease induce osteoclastic activity. It is used for the recognition of journals, newspapers, periodicals, and magazines in all kind of forms, be it print-media or electronic. Each of these drugs has its own advantages and disadvantages for its utility as an active ingredient and has a broad spectrum action against most periodontal pathogens 16. This web edition is produced by Quintessenz Verlags-GmbH, Berlin. ISSN (online) 1945-3388. International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry. Evolution of the total number of citations and journal's self-citations received by a journal's published documents during the three previous years. These changes facilitate bacterial colonization in the sub-gingival tissues. Abbreviation : IP Int J Periodontol Implantol. There is no charge to submit your article and have it published in the journal. Sakarkar DM, Kosalge SB, Sheikh S. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Unit Moulded Herbal Semisolid Jelly useful in treatment of Mouth Ulcer. Only Open Access Journals Only SciELO Journals Only WoS Journals E-ISSN : 2457-0087. This rate increases in the presence of infection, resulting in further dilution and displacement of locally delivered chemotherapeutics. The Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology is published quarterly and includes news, comments and scientific reports on all aspects of periodontology. Periodontology 2002; 29:7-10. The crevicular flow volume is exchanged approximately 40 times in one hour, presenting a limitation for locally directed medications. Periodontology 1995; 8: 11-14. J Periodontol. The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new lead chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Plaque and microbial retention in grooves and pockets as well as within the dentinal tubules, and the presence of bacteria diffused in the soft tissue. Periodontitis is a common and widespread disease, which occurs due to the pathogenic bacterial infections (like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. mutans etc.) Patient compliance for regular mechanical oral hygiene diminished with time. periodontology 2000. journal of dental research. Journal of Periodontology 1995; 66: 962-965. Promoting international exchange and communications between individuals of all nations, in pursuance of these objects in order to promote periodontal health throughout the world. In a neutrophil chemotaxis assay, Azuma et al. Kornman KS: Controlled release local delivery- Antimicrobials in Periodontics. Periodontitis in comparison with Gingivitis is a more severe inflammation, because not only it affects the tissues, but also, it affects the bottom of the teeth. It has a dual mode of action when used intra orally. The use of irrigators with blunt-ended cannulae, or syringes, may improve the ability of the chemotherapeutic agent to reach deeper into the site in shallow to moderately deep periodontal pockets. British Dental Journal 2001; 191: 186-192. ISSN : 2581-9836. International Academy of Periodontology Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology Boston, Mass. Email(will not be published) Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 2000; 21:59-78. Subjects: Main Subject is Dental Science And Sub Subject Periodontology & Implantology, Dental Implants. The periodontium is the specialized tissues that both surround and support the teeth, maintaining them in the maxillary and mandibular bones. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2001; 28:697-700. New Bone Formation and Healing Time in Ridge Preservation. Periodontics. Journal of Innovative trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010; 1:245-251. Mode of action: Those botanical which contain phenolic compounds have anti-inflammatory and prostaglandin synthetase-inhibiting activity. Many plant-derived medicines used in traditional medicinal systems have been recorded in pharmacopeias as agents used to treat infections and a number of these have been recently investigated for their efficacy against oral microbial pathogens 32. The Journal of Periodontal Research is an international research periodical which publishes original investigations concerned with every aspect of periodontology and related sciences. Prospects for the future. IP International Journal of Periodontology and Implantology. J Dent Res. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are both cytokines, and their presence results in the stimulation of matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP) which is followed by attachment loss and bone resorption 8. Current classifications include chronic, aggressive, localized aggressive and refractory periodontal disease. This paper aims to review the diagnostic application of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the field of periodontology. Wiley would like to announce that starting January 2021, Prof. Dagmar Else Slot will be the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Dental Hygiene. Ip International Journal Of Periodontology And Implantology specialize in publication of digital advertisement to help clients inform and attract new customers easily and efficiently. For example, bacterial resistance to most (if not all) of the antibiotics commonly used to treat oral infections (penicillins and cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline and derivatives and metronidazole) has been documented. Editor in Chief: Myron Nevins, DDS, Marc L. Nevins, DMD, MMSc. Dental biofilm consists of bacteria that are tightly bound to each other. FIGURE 1: FLOW DIAGRAM OF PROGRESSION OF PERIODONTITIS. External citations are calculated by subtracting the number of self-citations from the total number of citations received by the journal’s documents. A possible mechanism in reducing gingival inflammation. Chemical Treatment: Chemotherapeutic products used to prevent and treat periodontal disease include mouthrinses,  dentifrices, systemic antimicrobials, locally delivered antimicrobials and other therapeutics. Ciancio SG, Lauciello F, Shiby O, Vitello M, and Mather M: The effect of an antiseptic mouthrinse on implant maintenance: plaque and periimplant gingival tissues. Additionally, it is in deeper periodontal pockets that the more virulent gram-negative anaerobic periodontal pathogens are most prevalent and it is known that mouthrinses may not reach deep into periodontal pockets. Journal of Periodontology 1984; 55:325-335. Other antibiotics used include the tetracycline class (tetracycline, doxycycline and minocycline), erythromycin, clindamycin, and metronidazole. Herbal drugs acts as a renewable source, which is our only hope for sustainable supplies of cheaper medicines for the worlds growing population. Zaura-Arite E, Van Marle: Confocal microscopy study of undisturbed and chlorhexidine-treated dental biofilm. It is highly inconvenient and painful technique with least patient compliance. These authors in their report further suggested that improving the oral hygiene of the population will have a great impact on the occurrence of periodontal disease. Data Source: Scopus®, Metrics based on Scopus® data as of April 2020. Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis: Periodontal disease varies by age of onset, severity, whether the disease is localized or generalized, the bacteria, and the host response. International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry. Down the ages essential oils and other extracts of plants have evoked interest as alternates for bacterial infections. Herbal control on Periodontitis: Medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases for thousands of years and in many parts of the world. 1994; 21(10):680-683. Taubman MA, Valverde P, Han X, Kawai T: Immune response: the key to bone resorption in periodontal disease. Advising in the creation and co-ordination of undergraduate and postgraduate educational programs, especially in countries with limited resources; Mombelli A, Samaranayake LP: Topical and systemic antibiotics in the management of periodontal diseases Int Dent J. The Journal of International Academy of Periodontology. Journal of clinical Periodontology 2003; 30 (5): 7-9. The cytokines and chemokines produced by leucocytes lead to inflammation and bone loss. Journal of Periodontology 2003; 74:391-401. After 2-4 days more gram negative like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella , anaerobics (filamentous and cocci) organisms and fusiform bacteria with higher pathogenicity begin to colonize. Herbal drugs have long era of use and better patient tolerance as well as public acceptance. INTRODUCTION: The word "periodontitis" comes from peri ("around"), odont ("tooth") and -itis ("redness"). Journal of Periodontology 2005; 76:2033-41. * Required. Journal of Periodontics 1998; 69: 269-278. The users of Scimago Journal & Country Rank have the possibility to dialogue through comments linked to a specific journal. In the United States 50% of adults have gingivitis affecting at least 3-4 teeth; two-thirds of the population has sub gingival calculus, and about a one-third have periodontitis 3, 4. It is not possible to administer broad spectrum antibiotics at its optimum dosage levels, multiple times over large periods. In an effort to reach a wide audience range, Perio J is an online, peer-reviewed, open access journal that endorses the global exchange of information pertinent to the field of periodontology. Some chemotherapeutic rinses are subject to physical and biochemical constraints that limit their application in periodontal treatment. They can be used effectively in the management of halitosis with no side effects even if used for a long period. It is the principal etiological factor in periodontal diseases and caries. The presence of periodontal pathogens threatens the periodontal stability and health of treated sites due to bacterial migration from other periodontal sites or sites such as the dorsum of the tongue. Click here to view the latest trending articles from Journal of Periodontology. Journal of Periodontology Established in 1930 as the official publication of the AAP, the Journal of Periodontology (JOP) publishes original papers of the highest scientific quality to support practice, education, and research in the dental specialty of periodontics. 2001; 72:1535-1544. journal of dentistry. The host response to antigens and irritants released by bacteria includes the local release of antibodies, lymphocyte and neutrophil activation and their infiltration into the gingival tissue. http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.3(5).1260-67, All © 2021 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Subscribe to YouTube Channel of SPSR 1986; 13:39-44. Court domicile and place of performance: Chicago, USA. international endodontic journal. Buccal Soft Tissue Dehiscences Around Implants (ENG) oral oncology. Periodontal disease is one of the most important concerns for dentists and patients. Availability of medicinal plants is not a problem especially in developing countries like India having rich agro-climatic, cultural and ethnic biodiversity. Fine DH, Furgang D, and Barnett ML: Comparative antimicrobial activities of antiseptic mouthrinses against isogenic planktonic and biofilm forms of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Albandar JM, and Rams TE: Global epidemiology of periodontal diseases: an overview. Other antibacterial agents used in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases, including cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, amine fluorides or products containing such agents, are reported to exhibit toxicity, cause staining of teeth or in the case of ethanol (commonly found in mouthwashes) have been linked to oral cancer. Cited By: August 2020. There have been numerous reports of the use of traditional plants and natural products for the treatment of oral diseases. Essential oil mouthrinses also reduces plaque and inflammation around dental implants. J Dent Res. 1999; 12(4):564–582. Bernimoulin JP:  Recent concepts in plaque formation. Wolff LF: Chemotheraputic agents in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. Morris et al., (2001) reported that in the United Kingdom 40-45% of adults have moderate destructive periodontal disease and 5-10% has a severe form of the disease. Review articles, reports of scientific meetings in periodontology and other short communications are also published in the journal. Northwest Dentistry 1985; 64:15-24. oral diseases The establishment of calculus results in further bacterial accumulation as a result of its porous nature and rough surface. Disseminating amongst members and others advancements in the theory and practice of periodontology through its publications and educational meetings; and Mechanism of action: One study found that chlorhexidine, tetracycline, doxycycline and other antibiotics all anti-oxidant activity and suggested that anti-oxidative activity may be part of the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of periodontal disease. Sources . Advancing international co-operation on a personal basis and in co-operation with national or international periodontal societies and research groups and appropriate health organizations; Loesche WJ, Syed SA, Morrison EC, Kerry GA: Metronidazole in Periodontitis. Q1 (green) comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 (yellow) the second highest values, Q3 (orange) the third highest values and Q4 (red) the lowest values. Mechanical control of Periodontal Disease:One of the goals of periodontal treatment is to eliminate pathogenic bacterial activity, thus halt-ing disease progression and enabling host recovery and gains in clinical attachment levels. Santos A: Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis. Studies have found that locally-applied antimicrobials substantially reduce bacterial resistance compared to use of systemic antibiotics. Ciancio SG: Antiseptics and antibiotics as chemotherapeutic agents for periodontitis management. 2001; 80(5):1436-1440. The chart shows the ratio of a journal's documents signed by researchers from more than one country; that is including more than one country address. 2001; 80(5):1436-1440. Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that text, figures, photographs, and tables have not appeared in any other publication, except as an abstract prepared and published in conjunction with a … Morris AJ, Steele J, and White DA: The oral cleanliness and periodontal health of UK adults in 1998. Dental Plaque: Dental plaque is a complex of several hundred species of bacteria living together, forming an adherent biofilm. 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