Go to previous slide - Best Selling. The German Bulge had separated The British in the North and the Americans in the south by about 40 km. The Wehrmacht was constantly attempting to adjust to the fuel shorages. The destruction of the Luftwaffe opened up Germany to an unrelenting bombing campaign by the massive American and British strategic bombing forces built up in Britain as well as additional fiorces flying from liberated Italy. The next step was going after the synthetic fuel plants. And while Soviet oil deliveries helped, the oil situation remained precarious. Bags & Rucksacks. [Resistance] And once the British were dealt with, then he could finally turn east and deal with the Soviet Union. The Americans had huge supply dumps stockpiled with gasoline (petrol) for their highly mechanized army. Stalingrad. The Germany synthetic fuel industry was producing about 3.7 millio barrels a month by early -1944 and had not yet ben seriosly hit by the strategioc bombing campaign. At the time the SS was preparing planson how to deal with the British if an invasion was necessary--NAZI occuption plans. And substatial repairs were needed requiring a great deal of equipment and material. Romanian deliveries continued at the 1941 level in both 1942 and 1943. The Germans took elborate measures to camouflage the plants. [Stokes] Fields in the Reuch produced about 3 8 million barrels. Thus much of the fuel landed had to be used to transport fuel and supplie to the front. These deliveries temprarily alieviated one of the most serious problems faced by the Wehermacht. The German fields were primarily located in northwestern Germany. The product was then refined to create a synthetic liquid fuel. Military preparadnes became increasingly important and overrode commercial concerns. Farbenindustrie, A. G., Works, Ludwigshafen and Oppau. An OKW study made aiquiting assessment (May 1941). Most of this was imported by sea, but 3.8 million was imported from terestrial sources, by rail or barge. (November 10). German planners for the operation concluded that even under the most optimistic projections there was only enough fuel for 60 days of full … The developing Anglo-Franco cooperation meat that oil was avaolable to the French as well. Already a base was in readiness next door in Persia, where a sizable German—and pro-Nazi—colony already existed. 75, No. He knew Bedouin lore, their customs, their tribal structure, the complex web of unwritten law governing their lives.”, © Copyright 2021 Center for the National Interest All Rights Reserved, Under the leadership of Peake, and later Glubb, the Arab Legion soon gained such a bold reputation that Arabs from all over the region flocked to join. Germany's industrial development was based on coal. Aerial mining of the Danube River caused further problems for the Germans. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. [Speer] Once at the front, the tanks were then converted to use synthetic fuel in combat where high performance and speed was needed. The supply probklem was manageable when the fighting was in Libya. Success here would prove to be a factor in the Allies victory during the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945). They used an indirect process, meaning the coal is gasified and then converted to liquid fuels. The German fields were primarily located in northwestern Germany. This included the agricultural sector. OKW analists calculated that with monthly military requirements of 7.25 million barrels and imports and home production of only 5.35 million barrels, German oil stocks would be exhausted by August 1941. The Allied oil campaign of World War II: 11 pitted the RAF and the USAAF against facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication (POL) products. 217.] Sweden was important because of iron ore, but Germany needed much more to wage a protrcted war. NAZI diplomats worked to develop trade relations with the Balkan countries and to bring the countries in the rgion into the Axis. The Soviets as part of the NaZI-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (August 1939) delivered oil to the NAZIs. With the German invasion of Belgium, the British declred war and with French cooperation instituted a naval blockade of Germany. A factor here was that fuel shortages made it impossible for the Luftwaffe to adeqiately train new pilots. Nearly 32 million barrels were imported or over 70 percent. Russia had vast resources and began to develop fieklds in the Caucauses. Finally the 8th Ar Force went for the German jugular--th synthetic fuel plants deep in the Reich. Somerset de Chair has left an ominous picture of what was going on inside neighboring Persia. [Miller, pp. And they wre easily surronded and cut off. The arrangementwas tht Sovietswoukd deliver grain and raw mterials and the Germans manufactured goods desired by the Soviets. Nearly 70 percent of the town were destroyed. Libyaan Italian colony. Given the liklihood of an Allied naval embargo, the NAZIs well before the War gave considerable attention to developing a synthetic oil indutry. A wide variety of similar processes can be used to convert coal, biomass and other carbon intensive feedstocks into useable products such as diesel and jet fuel. Hitler also ordered Model to destoy the industry and anything else in the Ruhr of use to the enemy--the Nero Order. They were working at the prestigious Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (now the Maz Planck Institute) invented the process because of a petroleum shortages during the War, increased demand and skyrocketing prices. 59 (summer 1985), pp. Finally the 8th Ar Force went for the German synthetic fuel plants. And while the bombers were shifted primarilt to France to support the Normandy landings, attaks on the Reich continued and one of the principal targetswas tghe synthetic fuel plants as they were located. [Stranges] The other great powers had sources of oil. With Gibraltar in their hands, the Mediteranean would be essetially an Axis lake. The British Ambassador, Sir Kinahan Cornwallis, was held hostage in the embassy. Whoever controlled Iraq sat astride the crucial overland route between Egypt and India, the most precious jewel in England’s Imperial Crown. Montgomery attacked the German-Italian army in North Africa with a massive bombardment followed by an armoured attack. These companies controlled approximately 85 percent of the global oil reserves. Itv isat this point that the American fighter pilots destroy the Luftwaffe. Oil was a problem for Germany from the first day of the War. The fallm of France also mean that the Royal Navy no longervhad te support of the French fleet and woufd have to go it alone. Peipher's 6th SS Panzer Army seized a U.S. fuel depot at B�llingen (December 17). To ensure Feisal’s rule (and protect Britain’s interest), the British patrolled the vast Iraqi desert and its Bedouin tribes by Royal Air Force (RAF) planes from above and Rolls-Royce armored cars on the desert floor. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS). On June 22, nine-tenths of the production of airplane fuel was knocked out." The labor force came from camps (Pommernlager, Nordlager, Tobruklager, Wullenwever-Lager, Arbeitserziehungslager H�gerwelle, D�rrfeld Lager) located nearby. 5 Best Handgun Makers on the Planet (Sig, Glock and Ruger Made the Cut). The Austrian Anscluss added more fields (1938). The Germans had three sources of oil. Romania was the site of the famed German-controlled oil fields of Ploesti, the target of heavy Allied bombing during the war. The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.On 25 July 1942, German troops captured Rostov-on-Don, Russia, opening the Caucasus region of the southern Soviet Union, and the oil fields beyond at Maikop, Grozny, and ultimately Baku, to the Germans.Two days prior, Adolf … After the turn-of-the 20th century, however, industrial energy requirements began to change. The naval blockade thus proved a critical componnt of the Allied victory. This essentially forced Romania into the NAZI camp. The Allies' failure to support Czechoslovakia at the Munich Conference (1938) made it clear to the Romanians that they were on their own. The Arab Legion was formed to control the Bedouin tribes in his new domain, and to defend it from outsiders. The British at the time also had no oil, but with the Royal Navy could import oil from fields being developed in the Middle East or the UNited States. Thiswas all part of Hitler's decission to invade the Soviet Union. What had been a problem was now close to immobilizing the entire Germany Army. Lawrence in the Arab Revolt. Oil/Fuel certainly keeps units mobile, though a large portion of the German War Machine was horse-powered (the four legged kind). Italian state oil Company ENI Chief and Italian businessmen Enrico Mattei coined the phrase after the War. [Petzina, pp. At the time of World War II, the Iranian fields were just being developed, but fields in Iraq controlled by the British would ply an importnt role in the War. Fuel had been a problem for the Wehrmacht from the beginning of the War, but by December 1944 not only was Ploesti in ruins and occupied by the Red Army, but the Germany's synthetic fuel plants were now also largely destroyed thanks to the Allied strategic bombing campaign. The Germans did what they could to maximize output from their domestic oil fields. By the time of El alemaine, this meant a logistical train of over 1,000 miles. WW2 Binoculars. Already the German Army had formed two special units trained and ready to assist the Iraqis, the 287th and 288th Brandenburg companies [the 288th was commanded by Colonel Menton, an old friend of Rommel’s from the Great War]. It was too late to have much impact on the German war effort and oil was not as important at the time as it was to become in World War II. And thanks to Stalin, this time there was no longer a French Army in the West to divert resources. From there there was nothing standing between the Germans and the oil resources of the Midde East, both in Iraq and Iran. Hitler was determined to destroy what he described and the Jewish-Bolshevik Soviet regime. The British never had a fuel or oil problem throughout WW2 . [Countries] It involved a two-pronged attack: one from … Best Selling. Ultimately the flow of oil was cut off by American bombing. The Germans were, however, no longer paying for the oil in any meaningful way. [Return to Main World War II page] As part of its foreign policy, Germany steadily increased its influence in Romania. [Links] One of the primary targets became the synthetic fuel plants. He ordered the nationalization of the industry and the search for new fields in the Reich. Faktor �l: die Mineral�lwirtschaft in Deutschland 1859-1974 (C.H. Tanks and other vehicleswe primarily trabnsported by rail. If they persist at it this time, we will soon no longer have any fuel production worth mentioning'." Zeltbahns & Accessories. The Germans were developing an empire of their own, but none included oil finds and with the Royal Navy control of the Sea, there was no way of getting oil back to Germany even if there were oil discoveries. [Diplomacy] A subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp was located in P�litz itself. The Soviets seized the provinces of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (1940). In his crisp, soldierly prose, the Desert Fox spelled out his campaign plans in a note to himself to be used for post-war memoirs: “We could have defeated and destroyed the British Field Army, and that would have opened the road to the Suez Canal.… With the entire Mediterranean coastline in our hands, supplies could have been shipped to North Africa unmolested. The danger was obvious, and growing worse. Many of the refineries were in eastern Germany. In the North, Montgomery staged a major set-piece offensive with a huge D-Day-like airborn drop (Operation Plunder). Rashid Ali made “threats to the Ambassador about cutting the throats of the British if any bombs were dropped on Baghdad,” recalled British officer Somerset de Chair, who would play an important role in the drama to come. Stranges, Anthony N. "Friedrich Bergius and the rise of the German synthetic fuel industry," Isis Vol. Birkenfield, Wolfgang. Possssion of the city on the Volga would have prevent the Soviets from sending reinforcements into the Caucasuses to protect the oil fields and to get the oil north. When Hitler launched the Panzers across tge Polish frontier (September 1939), Germany had stockpiled 15 million barrels of fuel. But, this is a question about ifs) who knows where it would have led? A month and after the Normandy landings he writes, "... the allies staged a new series of attacks which put many fuel plants out of action. [Geo-political crisis] [Economics] And there was considerable pro-German feeling not only in Egypt, but Iraqand Iran as well. This was asouthern strategy championed by Admiral Raeder and others. The advance to meet the Russians would be resisted by small units in towns an villages, but there would be no coordinated effort to stop the Allied advance. [Images] To do this he had to split his forces. Thisworked, but it did not provide the energy needed firhigh performance. Even when the Allies did dclare war, oil was still not an immedite problem. Schroeder, W.C. R. Holroyd, R.. ed. The destruction of the Luftwaffe opened up Germany to an unrelenting bombing campaign by the massive American and British strategic bombing forces built up in Britain as well as additional forces flying from liberated Italy. He then proceeded to chase the routed enemy some 1500 miles across the desert. Romania was Hitler’s major source of oil, since he had failed to conquer the Russian fields. May 1, 2020 - Explore loco castlebrimstone's board "ww2 german", followed by 237 people on Pinterest. This would have solved the fuel problem because Germany could then import fuel by sea again. The problem continues to be the cost of the process. The country had abundant coal resources, especially in the Ruhr. Fuel was so short in Germany that some of the gasoline being stockpiled for the offenive had to be trasportd by horse and cart. Oil was not yet as important as it would be in World war II, but is was increasingly important even in World war I. Friederich Bergius had developed the direct proces for converting coal to a synthetic fuel just before the War. But the Germans had done more than merely dream of Middle East conquest. It formed part of the immense Allied strategic bombing effort during the war.The targets in Germany and in Axis Europe included refineries, synthetic fuel factories, storage depots and other POL-infrastructure. Possssion of the Soviet oil fields in the Caucasuses would permanently solve Germany's petroleum and these were supplies that could not be interdicted by the Royal Navy. Iraq’s pro-British government was toppled in a coup in March by the very pro-German Rashid Ali al-Gailani. [Bibliographies] The American pilots thus faced a Luftwaffe fighter force now composed of many young, inexperienced pilots. [Race] This was the last major German formation resisting the Western Allies. Eating & Drinking. The Germans began overruning Soviet oil fields in the northern Caucauses (summer 1942), but were unable to bring them on line or hold them very long. The reason for Iraq’s importance to England was simple. Given the reatively small British force in Egypt, this could ve ccomplished with a modest force. Maikop alone would have given the Germans what they needed. After the War cost became important and neither of the two main processes were competitive with imported oil. August 1946). Go to next slide - Shop by Featured Refinements. 143-44. P38 Magazine. [USSBS, pp. In addition the small German oil industry had only a small number of qualified men who were capable of redrilling the wells. Only Italian incompetence enabled the British to hang on. (May 19, 1944) The Americans joined by the reconstituted French Army after the Bulge pressed forward to the Rhine. I love Duc Quyen's answer and I am tempted to agree with him but I find it just too simplistic. As a result of this and further Red Army offensives, the Germans were forced to withdraw from Maikop (January 1943). The Axis powers wanted to capture the important Suez canal which would give them access to the Middle Eastern oil fields. German locomotioveswere coal fired. The German invasion of the USSR included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields. 254-77. Air raids on Ploesti destroyed 50 percent of the Romanian refinery capacity (August 1943). Only here where mobility was not a factor and air power difficult to use could the Germans effectively resist. Hettlage, Karl Maria. WW2 German Ring. Hitler with aeries of impressive victories was convinced he could destroy the Soviet Union in a short summer campaign. Most of North Africa was already in Axis hands. The Germans began enlarging he oil fields. A large portion of the Italian supply convoys were destroyed through British air and submarine attacks, Here Malta played a key role. A large portion of the Italian supply convoys were destroyed through British air and submarine attacks, Here Malta played a key role. The 8th Air Force had sustanined substantial losses on targets in western Germany during 1943. P38 Holster. It was needed in war time when cost was not very important. The United Srates was the major oil producer and exporter at the time and much of the production was by companies that had been created by the break up of John D. Rockefellers Standard Oil monopoly. The German plan for the Caucasus was particularly ambitious, and was combined with the capture of Stalingrad, in order to gain control of the oil resources of the region. [51] The city’s fields themselves were Europe’s largest individual source of petroleum outside the Soviet Union. General Patton's Third Army after swwping through France (July-August 1944) began to experience fuel shortages. K98 Stock. Rather than consuming their stockpile, the Germans actually increased it by seizing the stockpiles of the defeated nations: Denmark and Norway (April 1940) and then the Netherlands, Belgium, and France May 1940). The Bergius process was later enhanced by Matthias Pier. The process involved reacting the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane obtained from coal. The Iraq putsch was as devastating a blow to England in the Middle East, especially coupled with the Desert Fox’s spectacular victories in North Africa, because Iraq shared an importance, second only to that of Egypt, for the survival of British power in the entire region. Thus maritime oil imports would be ended. Germany was a highly industrialized nation. To do this he had to split his forces. While Germany did not have much oil, it did have coal and the the most advanced chemical industry in the world. The nature of German crude, however, meant it could not be used in the refining of motor and aircraft fuel which Hitler badly neededed for the growing Wehrmacht. He clearly spelled out that Germany's destany and needed Lebensraum lay in the East. As the War developed, the inability to import oil and other raw materials began to cause serious problems with both German industrial production and the food supply. Overview about the relative comparison of the military production and wartime expenditures of the Axis and Allies in World War II. First, oil and octane were key to the fight. The Red Army despite monumental losses, not only stopped the Germans just short of Moscow and the Caucauses, but inflicted massive losses on them. The Ardennes was hardly the perfect location for an armored offensive--especialy for the large German Panthers and Tigers. Second France fell to th Germans, providing first Atlantic ports (1940) and then Mediterraean ports (1942). "I implored Hitler ... to reserve a significantly larger part of the fighter plane production ... to protecting the home hydrogenation plants ...." (July 28). Tanks are gas guzzlers, especially the heavy German tanks. “We soon noticed how the stream of German armaments to Persia, by way of Turkey, had been increasing in recent months.… We examined closely the set-up of the German Fifth Column in Persia, where 4,000 Germans in commercial occupations were organized under Gauleiters [Nazi Party leaders] and could be mobilized on the telephone. The narrow roads and bridges created massive traffic jams which were poorly managed, thus consuming some of the precious fuel reserve. There were of course many other enducements, including Ukrainian grain and Donets coal, but oil was the most pressing problem. It was in this grave hour that one of the most exciting, and least-known, campaigns of World War II was launched—the story of Kingcol and the British march on Baghdad. Bergius won a Nobel Prize for his work. There is no doubt that oil was an important inducement as was the grain of the Ukraine and other needed resources. To ensure the German Army's survival, the oil-rich fields of the Soviet Caucasus region were targeted for capture and thus Hitler devised 'Operation Blue' for the action. It was just the beginning. History of the Raid on the German Oil Supply in Ploesti The oil fields and eight massive refineries that surrounded Ploesti, Romania, spread over about eighteen square miles. Massing for the searing 750-mile trek across the desert sands from Palestine were soldiers from some of the oldest regiments in the British Army—baptized under fire with the great Duke of Marlborough—standing beside warriors of some of the most picturesque units mustered to guard the frontiers of Britain’s far-flung empire, now led by Marlborough’s descendant, Winston Churchill. [About Us] Russia was by far the largest supplier in 2018, delivering 31 million tonnes, or about 36 percent of oil imports. The P�litz plant was a primary target of the Allied Oil Campaign. The British would be forced to withdrwl or surrender Malta. Major units were mostly intrested in surrendering the Western Allies to avoid the hell of the Soviet Gulag. The NAZI-Soviet alliance which made the War possible, however, added a whole new source of desperately needed oil for the Germans. This 25 percent shortfall could only be supplied with Soviet oil deliveries. One of the primary targets became the synthetic fuel plants. Hitler recognized the importance of oil and ordered and the danger of relying on imported sources. One prong headed south for the oil. Recommended: Russia's Next Big Military Sale - To Mexico? Karlsch, Rainer and Raymond G. Stokes. Capturing the Caucasus oil fields would require draining dry the accumulated German oil reserves. The companies included: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (this was a British company, now BP), Gulf Oil (split between BP and Chevron), Royal Dutch Shell (a Dutch-British compny), Standard Oil Company of California (SoCal, now Chevron), Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Esso, later Exxon, now part of ExxonMobil), Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony, later Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil), and Texaco (now part of Chevron). German-Controlled oil fields preparing planson how to deal with the destruction of the year... In surrendering the Western Allies to declare War, the most pressing problem factor here was the. 1939, far more practical, external suspenders were introduced, Koppeltragegestell für Infanterie '' the Grand of... Seizure of the Afrika Korps in the Western desert forces in the World been relatively. Tanks are gas guzzlers, especially in the Middle East suddenly exploded in a crisis great... 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